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Water Treatment Process
 Updated: Monday, 25/05/2020   Print this page 

The Water Authority of Fiji (WAF) maintains and operates a total of 55 water treatment facilities in Fiji.

All the major towns and cities have a full scale treatment known as the "conventional model"  as shown above.

Our country is blessed with quality surface and ground waters. We treat water that meet WHO guidelines.

Chemicals widely used are:

  • Aluminium Sulphate  as a coagulant
  • Polymer – as a coagulant aid
  • Sodium Carbonate – for  coagulation pH adjustment
  • Pre – chlorination ( if need arises)
  • Hydrated Lime – for pH adjustment of treated water
  • Chlorine gas – as a disinfectant

Process Description:

Typical processes of conventional water treatment plant

The intake screens prevent debris from entering the treatment facility. The screens are located off the bottom of the river to avoid bringing sediments into the treatment plant and below the surface to avoid bringing oils or other floating material into the treatment plant.

Aeration process involves bringing air to contact with water to transfer volatile substances from the liquid to the gaseous phase, thus increase the dissolved air in water. It will improve taste and odor and also oxidize iron and manganese.

Coagulation Process
Chemical coagulants are added to react with the remaining small particles in the water to form particles large enough to settle out. Rapid mixing distributes the coagulant evenly throughout the water. While, flocculation basins gently mix the water with large submerged paddles so smaller particles collide to form large particles called "floc".

Sedimentation is physical treatment process that utilizes gravity to separated suspended solid from water. Floc settles by gravity to the bottom of a sedimentation basin. Then, clean water spills over to the filters.

Filtration removes any remaining particles that carried over after sedimentation. The force of gravity moves the water through filter media usually, sand.

Chlorine adds to prevent bacterial contamination as the treated water flows through the distribution system to customers.

Adjusted pH to be 7.2 + at the outlet of contact tank by adding lime.


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